I spent the last three days reconditioning a 45″ Leclerc Nilart 12-harness weaving loom. Disassembled last Sunday I could have simply brought it home and set it up. Outside of some superficial scratches and dents it was in very good condition. However, this loom is 42 years old. In spite of it being the newest loom we own its age in-and-of-itself warrants full dismantling. And in spite of the tedious nature of disassembly, inspecting, cleaning, scouring, sanding, refinishing, oiling, lubricating, and reassembly, it is well worth it from several standpoints.
Here’s how to do it…
eralWarm, giving, flexible, shock absorbing, and economical, wood is an is a excellent medium to use in loom construction. However, wood also requires maintenance in two areas.
The first area of caring for wood lies in the fact that over time wood dries out. Wood itself is not stable. Over time it continues to shift. Some woods are less prone to instability. Sometimes this happens when wood is used that is not fully cured. Relative humidity and temperature also plays a role in a wood’s stability. Leclerc looms are built of maple. Maple is a more stable wood because it has a dense grain. They also use well-dried lumber. Yet even maple can warp and crack. This is a pic along the bottom of one of the upright temple panels. Over a period four decades this wood checked. It is small and minor and does not affect the function of this machine, but simply oiling it may have prevented it from occurring, adding some elasticity to the cell structure. Factory varnish may have helped to prevent this as well; I find that in many of Leclerc’s looms they lack finish on hidden/unexposed parts. I understand doing so on places such as joints/mortise-and-tenons. But it would be better if all surfaces were treated. So once the loom was fully assembled I lightly sanded and oiled all unfinished surfaces using boiled linseed oil. Here’s a before and after image of the harness guide rod blocks…dirty, unfinished before…then the wood given a drink…and reconditioned afterward…
The second area of caring for wood involves noting areas that are worn. Any wear indicates an area of friction. Friction is a sign of loom inefficiency, eating up precious energy that the loom operator exerts in weaving. It may not seem like a lot, but incremental inefficiency can add up to a lot of effort. That’s just not needed. Of course a hand loom requires effort. Part of the joy of weaving comes from its associated bodily-kenisthetic joy; weavers feel the movement of their bodies translating ultimately into cloth. Removing or smoothing these areas lessens these friction points. Of course the cause of this wear will also need to be remedied. But for now it is important to return the wood back to a better finish. Light sanding and fine steel wool are in order here.
The third area is repairing any functional damagedone over the years. Broken parts need to be firmly fixed; unprofessional repairs need to be put back together correctly.
Additionally, the fourth area lies in the cosmetic repair of chips, dents, scratches, and dings. These can often be lightly sanded out and then refinished. But it is best to not try and do too much to character marks; it is, after all, a used loom and most will have experienced some unavoidable, unwitting, and unforeseen misfortunes. It is, after all, a tool, and tools get worn over time…just hopefully not too much through unwarranted abuse.
Smoothness of operation is also a big concern. These treadle spacers had not been smoothed on their ends. They were rough and would have required undue effort to perform. I lightly touched these to a sanding disc and they were instantly as smooth as glass,in spite of still bearing the marks of their initial roughness (you don’t want to sand these out since it would change the length of these spacers).
The last area involves evaluating the wear that has taken place on its joinery. Weaving is by nature violent. The clanking of treadles. The winding of the warp. The concussion of the beater. These add up to a lot of vibration over time. A well-built loom using well-dried hardwood will withstand a lot. Nevertheless, evaluate and shore up any loose joints. This can often be done with spacers and wedges. If the loom utilizes lag screws in its construction be mindful that if these loosen they may lose their purchase over time. I find that I have sometimes needed to increase the diametre of these screws. This is usually the easiest. Converting these to bolts, where practical is also a possibility, as are using lag inserts, or refilling holes with a very strong epoxy and redrilling when thoroughly dried.
2. Metal Fittings
This Nilart had been kept indoors its entire life. Nevertheless, its hardware needed a vigourous cleaning. Where its corrosion come from is anyone’s guess. Every major bolt was so-damaged. Leaving metal in this condition will eventually weaken the wood with which it is in contact. It will also wear on the part itself, causing it to loosen eventually, which will wear whichever joint is involved. It also creates a lot more friction, requiring greater and greater effort to weave.
Some used looms, you might guess, need their metal fittings fully replaced. My first loom had sat in an unheated garage for years. It had obviously also sat in another building where it had experienced some water damage as it had water marks on some of its wood along its lower parts. That it had not sat in water was equally clear since the wood had not swollen. It looked like someone had put it in a barn for a while where it was exposed to some snow? The joints were all tight. But many of its screws and bolts needed to be replaced because of being thoroughly rusted. In some cases the holes needed to be redrilled to fit the newer, larger fasteners.
This new loom also had an exceptionally ill-cast brake wheel. Why the original owner did not request a new one from the factory when it was first purchased is beyond me. I cannot imagine having worked with something like that for years and years. This mis-cast piece also gouged the wooden cradle in which it rests below the back beam. Everything was terribly coarse and would have required much more effort than it now does to turn since I have removed all excess material. Here’s some pics to show the initial, then half-filed, then fully filed, sanded and polished end. It works as smooth as glass now…
Polishing the front reel’s cast iron ratchet steel end made it turn much more freely as well…and made it truly beautiful. Steel wool was all that was required.
The heavy treadle connecting rod was fully corroded. After it was polished the treadles move with no resistance whatsoever. It required some very fine emory cloth to clean it back down to bare metal, and then fine steel wool to polish it.
All of the washers used as spacers required finishing on their unfinished side. Washers have a finished side with a rounded edge, and an unfinished, cut side. Virtually all of these had rough lips on the cut side. These were all sanded off, then that side of the washer was polished. Then now glide easily and do not cut the wood against which they rest. Here’s a before and after, showing the lip, how to flat sand, and the polished product. Nice…
I also cleaned the bars on which the heddles rest on each harness. I used 0000 Fine steel wool to do so. While these bars did not appear dirty, just think about the fine grime that settles over forty years. The difference before and after was incomprehensible. What appeared clean before became as slick as ice afterward. The heddles (inserted small eye) now move freely across the width of the shaft. Just imagine the added cumulative effort required to operate the lamms every time they move up and down if all of the heddles have even the slightest resistance to lateral movement on them!
Never, ever use a corroded reed.
The reeds on this newly-acquired Nilart were tarnished, but not corroded. The difference between a tarnished one and a polished one is night-and-day. And when you consider that each reed passes friction on to every yarn of the warp, you can imagine the cumulative effect.
The effect of a corroded reed is not only to add even more friction to the beater bar, but carries with it the possibility of wearing or even breaking warp threads. Unless you like to retie broken warp threads from a rusted reed, then get a new reed.
A tarnished reed can be easily re-polished. The reed on this Nilart had to be cleaned first – I used a soft rag with ammonia water. Then I wiped it thoroughly and briskly. And at last I placed a new buffing wheel on a low-speed grinder and worked it carefully, gently, but firmly in between the reed bars. This brought the reed back to a lustre…and it is smooth! Before and after…
Reed bars also need to be carefully straightened. I find that a flat screwdriver with a wide blade works very well. Never use it as a prying tool.
4. Loom Finish
Leclerc makes a great loom. The finish on the outside of the temple cabinet and along the beams is that of fine furniture. However, on all four Leclerc looms we own the less-accessed parts often are left with a coarser finish. Some of that is from less-highly finished wood itself. But most of it is from less effort involved in applying the varnish with which these were initially produced. Don’t get me wrong, this is not a poor finish…just not that of a fine cherry table, for example. Since I was dismantling the entire loom I took the time I lightly sand all pieces that were found like this to a smooth finish and then applied boiled linseed in a light coat. The point of the light sanding was not to remove the original finish, but to smooth the rougher parts of the varnish itself out and then to reseal it with boiled linseed oil. The effect of this is overall less friction/chance of binding. Anything rough on a loom is an anomaly and counter-productive and should be looked after, at least here it is.
A loom is a tool, not a showcase. Anything that you can do to increase its comfort and ease of functioning should be done…within reason, of course. On the Jano loom that I restored I added pieces of plastic that I trimmed off of a plastic toboggan (Crazy Carpet). These pieces I screwed along the inside of the temple uprights near the top as the shafts were rubbing there. These were attached after I refinished these parts. They not only protect the wood, but add to the ease of operation as well since they are so slippery.
All of these have had a cumulative effect of not only making this loom beautiful, but functional and much easier to work. Obviously you know if you are capable of any of these repairs and refinements. For me this is second-hand. If it is not for you then hopefully you know someone who can do this for you.
Some people drive their car without ever checking the oil level! I feel much more secure in winding the first warp onto this loom with having done all of this first. And since it was disassembled for transport it was just one more step to doing it right…
I spent the day hauling in various parts of our Nilart loom. I started with scouring the heddle support bars on the harnesses using 0000 super fine steel wool. The loom is in great shape. Nevertheless, these bars are steel and as such subject to corrosion. Dust and grime also accumulate…in this case 42 years worth. While it did not seem significant, once I did this, the heddles slid back-and-forth like they are now on ice skates! I also lightly sanded the wood on the harnesses and wiped on a light coating of boiled linseed oil…my favourite natural finish. While the finish on Leclerc looms is nice, it is far from being a fine-furniture grade. Some of the wood’s roughness is from an incomplete sanding on the wood, and some is from roughness on the part of the varnish application. Sanding with fine sandpaper and then rubbing with linseed oil makes for a smooth-as-glass finish.
The reed was likewise tarnished and grimy. Steel wool worked off the worst. Then with a new polishing wheel I worked in between the reeds. It came out incredibly smooth.
I went on to the larger pieces of the loom, sanding and finishing…
The canvas on the front take-up reel was dirty…
…and got washed; the rear one will be done tomorrow when I dismantle the rear beam apparatus. And then the metal parts were scoured…
It’s coming out quite nicely. There is no reason to not do this. First of all an evaluation of all parts should be made…better now than when I load up my first warp and find out that there is a problem, that’s for sure! But just the prospect of alleviating any unnecessary friction in a loom that works 12 shafts will surely prove to be a benefit in the end. Better now than later. Today the windchill was -35, so it seems to be a great time to do this.
In 1975, Leclerc’s Kebec loom was the most expensive loom they made, ranging from $850 – $914, depending on the accessories. It’s a large, 4-shaft counterbalance loom with double treadles – 100″ or 120″ wide.
But their most advanced design at the time was their Nilart loom, a jack loom, available in 8 or 12 lamms. No longer available it was built on their successful Nilus time-tested design. The Nilart was either 45″ or 60″ wide and ranged in price from $730 (basic 45″ 8 harness) – $932 (60″, 12 shaft with inserted eye heddles).
The 12-shaft, 45″ Nilart I picked up on Sunday is a beautiful loom that is well-used, but well-cared for. It has inserted eye heddles…lots of them on the harnesses. The cost of this loom was $871 in 1975, which translates to $4,051 in today’s buying power. I paid $800 two days ago. And like I said, it is in great shape.
But the real story lies with the person who owned it, A. Gilmer in Winnipeg. She purchased it from the original owner, June Cameron, long-time MWFA member, weaver, artist, and weaving instructor, also from Winnipeg.
Links for Cameron’s activities/involvement can be found at:
The second owner of this loom relates that June was her first weaving teacher. She was taught at Ram Wools …back when Ram Wools was a wonderful weaving shop, with a noisy weaving workshop on the second floor (Klank, Kaboom, Klank, Kaboom, went the looms upstairs…).
A master loom, from a master weaver. I hope that some of her skill lies resident in the machine! :)
The Multiple Harness Nilus (MHN) (bottom right) appears to be the predecessor of the Nilart Loom made from the late 1950’s – 1985 by Leclerc. Its 1957 manual sates: It is constructed the same was as the 4 harness ‘Nilus’ loom except for the mechanism which is different because of the high number of harnesses. At the time a 45″, 12 harness MHN cost $260…or $2,274 in 2017’s buying power.
Status: No Longer Produced Mechanisms: Jack, Countermarche Shafts: 8, 12, 16 (60″ only) Weaving Widths: 45″, 60″ Features: Treadles can be attached to front of loom for 8 and 12 shaft, treadles can be attached to rear of loom for 12 and 16 shaft, back beam folds for storage, 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 shaft upgrades and jack to Countermarche conversion kits available, Computer-Dobby 12 and 16 shaft versions (in both 45″ or 60″) produced.
It’s a reed for big braids. 45″. I needed to order both a reed and yarn for this next project. The Leclerc reed came first. The yarn? Perhaps next month. Leclerc are people with whom it is so easy to deal. Send an email of what you want and where it is being sent. They send you and invoice with a PayPal link. You pay. They send. And the items are always very well packaged. Usual shipping time is within a day. While I wait to order my heavy cotton I’ll load up my warp board… tomorrow… and start something new… not sure what… I’ll decide tomorrow after I get up…
The beater on the Jano is not directly attached to the loom’s frame itself as are later models. Instead, the beater is simply set on a piece of round metal stock that protrudes inwardly from the lower cross beams.
Since Janos are no longer produced I had to look for someone else who had a Jano in order to request basic dimensions. Here is an exquisite set of drawings done at my request by Bob Bellaires, whose wife, Jenny, owns a Jano and operates Daisy Hill Weaving Studio. He made a very well engineered stand with treadles for her Jano loom which can be viewed, here. Thank you for your drawings!
In order to fully restore this Leclerc Jano loom I need to build a new beater. I do an extensive amount of woodwork; building the beater is not a problem. Getting the wood to match the loom is the greatest challenge. Winnipeg has maple, but it is six hours away. Checking with my local cabinet shop yielded a 4″ x 6″ x 3′ piece of maple. This is more than enough material for this project 3x over. The cost was $24.